Free Magazine & Newspaper WordPress Themes 2020. We pick the most innovated and creative Top Free Magazine & News themes around. Each Magazine WordPress theme is fully responsive with modern look and amazing customization options to help you setup your new or magazine site. As newspaper and magazine themes get popular and high in demand because of simplicity and cost effective you can have amazing magazine WordPress theme without breaking the budget. Many magazine and news themes have creative layout structures to help you visualize your content and help your reader get the most benefits from your website. Most free magazine comes with slider and ad spaces for your google advertising. Also check out our collection of best premium blog themes in 2020. Also, most of the themes will come with demo data so you can import into WordPress dashboard so your theme looks and functions like the demo. Below are some of the best magazine themes for publishers, bloggers and journalist. If you looking for some premium news or magazine themes check out Best News and Magazine WordPress Themes. If you looking for a tutorial on how to make a WordPress website using Magazine themes we have simple to follow step by step tutorial for 2020. Checkout Best Free Education Themes for WordPress in 2020.
Free Magazine, Newspaper & News WordPress Themes (UPDATED 2020)
Updated: October 21, 2020
Theme Version: 1.0.8. | WordPress Version: 4.0 or higher |PHP Version: 5 or higher
Madd Magazine beautiful and creative free magazine WordPress theme for bloggers, writers and journalists. Madd magazine is fully responsive magazine based theme with build in responsive slider, left and right custom widgets options. It has many options to add advertisement, newsletter signups and custom about widget text. Easy to setup with many customization features, colors, fonts, banners, etc..If you looking for great discount on WordPress Hosting we have Bluehost Coupon to save you 65% off any plan, or read our Bluehost review to find out if Bluehost is the best choice for you in 2020. If you are on budget and need best monthly hosting for WordPress Magazine where you pay month to month to see if you like the service and support.
Theme Version: 4.0.8. | WordPress Version: 4.0 or higher |PHP Version: 5 or higher
Colormag is one of the most popular magazine WordPress themes that is suitable for magazine, newspaper, news, and blogging sites. This theme comes with a beautiful magazine-style design that will help to attract more visitors to your site. This theme also follows the best SEO practices that will help you to rank at the top of the search engines. If you looking for great discount on Managed WordPress Hosting we have SiteGround Coupon to save you 70% off any plan, or read our SiteGround review to find out if SiteGround is the best Managed hosting for you in 2020. If you looking for the best cheap WordPress hosting provider for Magazine, we have a list of the best ones for WordPress users. Cheap hosting doesn’t have to mean that is bad or unreliable, cheap means that is affordable and best ones to start with.
Viral News is a clean and lightweight magazine template for WordPress. It comes with 6 beautifully designed starter websites that can be imported and installed in just a single click. These demos consist of minimal design suitable for creating any type of news portal, magazine, newspaper, and blog websites. Additionally, the theme contains 10 beautiful news/magazine modules. You can fully utilize them to add unlimited number of news categories and reorder them using the drag and drop process. With Managed WordPress Hosting you will get all the benefits of high performance, security and speed. Fully Managed WordPress Hosting is usually more expensive than regular WordPress Magazine Hosting because of the features and power you will get.
Divi (Try it for FREE) and Save 20% OFF
The Most Popular WordPress Theme In The World And The Ultimate WordPress Page Builder. Divi is our flagship theme and visual page builder. It’s the most widely used premium WordPress theme in the world according to stats from BuiltWith.com. Divi is more than just a theme, it’s a website building framework that makes it possible to design beautiful websites without ever touching a single line of code and without installing and configuring dozens of disjointed plugins. We think this is the future of WYSIWYG and it’s unlike any WordPress theme you have ever used before. Checkout our in depth Divi Review for 2020 and see if Divi 4 is the best WordPress Page Builder, also you can get Divi Coupon and save 20%. If you thinking about selling online with your blog and looking for the best WooCommerce hosting for secure and reliable WordPress hosting so you can easily sell your product online.
Genesis Framework & StudioPress Themes Free
When you sign up for a WP Engine plan, you receive the Genesis Framework and 35+ StudioPress Themes free. That’s over $2,000 in value when you sign up for a WP Engine plan.
Every StudioPress theme is Gutenberg ready, helping to simplify the content design and editing process even further. Plus, all themes are search-engine-optimized with locked down security features. This is a perfect deal for any freelancer or agency looking for best hosting with amazing support and over 35+ Studio Press WordPress themes included free in your plan. If you thinking about getting into hosting your clients websites, then Reseller hosting is what you need to get for your blog. You can earn extra money and your clients will have their own access to their admin dashboard where they can make any changes they like.
Free Newspaper Mag
Free Newspaper Mag unique and fully responsive WordPress theme for magazine, newspapers or professional blogs. Free Newspaper Magazine has a build in responsive slider, with image or video option. It also comes with right sidebar to add your favorite widgets. Simple to use and setup Newspaper Magazine is a beautiful design and coded magazine theme for professional bloggers. Fully responsive, SEO friendly and light weight to give your website the professional magazine look. Best Cloud hosting for WordPress Magazine is more of a way that you configure servers, instead of an actual tangible thing, but with it being called “cloud” hosting that’s probably what you’ve come to expect. On a technical level, the resources required for your website to function are spread out across multiple remote servers and these resources as tapped as they are needed.
OceanWP is the perfect theme for your project. Lightweight and highly extendable, it will enable you to create almost any type of website such a blog, portfolio, business website and WooCommerce storefront with a beautiful & professional design. Very fast, responsive, RTL & translation ready, best SEO practices, unique WooCommerce features to increase conversion and much more. You can even edit the settings on tablet & mobile so your site looks good on every device. Work with the most popular page builders as Elementor, Beaver Builder, Brizy, Visual Composer, Divi, SiteOrigin, etc… Developers will love his extensible codebase making it a joy to customize and extend. Best friend of Elementor & WooCommerce. Looking for a Multi-Purpose theme? Look no further! If you looking for great discount on WordPress Hosting we have HostGator Coupon to save you 62% off any plan, or read our HostGator review to find out if HostGator is the best website hosting for you in 2020.
MH Magazine lite is one of the most popular free responsive magazine, news, newspaper and blog WordPress themes for modern online magazines, dynamic news websites, professional blogs and other editorial websites. This free magazine theme is fast, secure, SEO friendly and perfectly suitable for topics like international news, politics, lifestyle, fashion, business, sports, gadgets, travel or anything else. If you would like to gain access to more awesome features, flexible custom widgets and useful options to customize your website, you can upgrade to the premium version of MH Magazine and take your website to the next level. You can also learn more about this dynamic magazine WordPress theme on the MH Themes website. If you looking for great discount on Fully Managed WordPress Hosting we have WP Engine Coupon to save you 20% off any plan or 4 months Free, or read our WP Engine review to find out if WP Engine is the best Fully Managed hosting for you in 2020.
FreeNews Magazine theme is an amazing modern WordPress theme. You can choose to build professional websites. It is easy to customize for all kinds of news, newspaper, magazine, publishing, blog or review sites. It also include all major aspects like responsive, performance, cross-browser compatible, SEO ready and supports RTL. It is ready to promotion with social media icons to reach maximum target audience. Responsive slider impress your customers with lively eye-catching images right on your banner section.
GreatMag is a modern magazine theme that gives you all the tools you need to quickly build an awesome news site or even a simple blog. GreatMag comes with tons of custom widgets, color options, font control and much more.
Theme Version: 2.0.8. | WordPress Version: 4.0 or higher |PHP Version: 5 or higher
VMagazine Lite is a free highly responsive multi-layout news magazine WordPress theme. The
theme has been crafted specially for newspaper, magazine, editorial and blog websites. And
this powerful theme will help you create sites faster and more easily than ever it has 4 in built
demos that can be imported with just one click. Also, VMagazine Lite uses Site Origin’s Page
Builder and has more than 8 powerful widgets for you.
A simple magazine WordPress theme suitable for any sort of magazine style website such as fashion, technology, food, lifestyle, new, cars, gamin and much more. Newspaper-X is a free theme that you can use for private and commercial use without any restrictions.
Originally designed by Anders Norén, Rowling‘s clean look and versatility make it a great fit for a wide variety of sites, from online magazines to personal blogs. Its responsive layout is optimized for all devices and great typography keeps your text legible and stylish. It comes with custom accent colors and logo support, so you can tweak the design to your liking. It also has two header menu locations and a social menu, and supports the Gallery Post Format.
A simple and clean WordPress free blog and magazine style theme with many customization options. This theme is specially design for blogger, onine news/magazine website with widgetize homepage, cusomizer settings, and multiple tabs options for widget, SEO Friendly, UI/UX optimzed theme without any cost. This theme is mainly applicable for magazine and blogs.
The Hueman theme helps you increase your traffic and engage your visitors. It loads fast and is 100% mobile-friendly according to Google. Best rated theme for blogs and magazines on WordPress.org. Powering 70K+ websites around the world.
Dynamic News Lite
A responsive, multipurpose blogging and magazine theme with bold colors and fonts. It comes with a featured content slider and a magazine page template. Dynamic News is a trending theme on wordpress.com and we are sure you will like the WordPress.org version as well.
Magazine Power is a clean, responsive and purposeful WordPress theme with a creative outlook focused for news portal and magazine sites. It provides plenty of unique features to make it a solid choice for your website, especially if your focus is on magazine or news. Theme helps you to display your content in a way that’s organized, attractive, and elegant. To give you head-start, it provides sample demo content with one click import feature. With this you can have quick overview what theme offers. The theme is responsive and cross browser which will make your site attractive and eye catching in any browser and different variations of devices screen size.
Meet Gazette, a clean and flexible theme perfectly suited for minimalist magazine-style sites, personal blogs, or any content-rich site. It allows you to highlight specific articles on the homepage, and to balance readability with a powerful use of photography — all in a layout that works on any device.
Gema Lite is a newspaper-inspired theme focused on presenting your content in ways that grab attention and interest. No matter if you are a stylish traveler, lifestyle connoisseur, a wandering photographer or literary dreamer, this theme helps you create an outstanding digital presence. Be brave and put your blogging stories out there with Gema Lite!
HitMag is a stylish and powerful theme crafted for magazines, newspapers or personal blogs. HitMag comes with a handful of options to customize your site the way you want. Free version has included a magazine homepage layout, 4 different style blog listing layouts and main color options. Not only that it comes with so many handful of features like author details box, Related posts after articles and control post metadata. All those features and options ensures that HitMag is not just another free WordPress theme but a powerful theme that fulfills all of the basic needs.
Metro Magazine is a modern responsive magazine style WordPress theme suitable for news, newspaper, magazine, sports, technology, food, travel, blogs, publishing, business and any kind of sites. The theme is built on Customizer and it allows you to easily customize your website with live previews. Metro Magazine includes color scheme and color for categories, which you can use to change the look and feel of your website with a click. The theme is Speed and Search Engine Optimized (SEO) to help you easily climb the google rank. Other feature includes social media integration, custom widgets, author bio, breadcrumb, advertisement settings, custom CSS, translation ready and more.
Cerauno is a polished, user-friendly magazine theme with plenty of customizable features. Add secondary content in up to five widget areas, brand your content with a Site Logo or Custom Header, include links to your favorite social networks, and add Featured Images to grab your readers’ attention. Cerauno is responsive, stretching or shrinking to accommodate any screen size.
MH News Desk Lite
MH Newsdesk is a modern and dynamic news WordPress theme with a beautiful flat design and great flexibility. This news template for WordPress is ideal for up-to-date blogs, online magazines and all kind of other vibrant news websites. MH Newsdesk WordPress theme is focusing on your newsworthy and fresh content. In case you need more features, additional widgets and advanced options to customize your website, you can upgrade to the premium version of MH Newsdesk.
Newsmag is a clean and modern magazine, news or blog WordPress theme for magazines, news websites, blogs and others. It have 4 different blog page style. It is will make your website adaptable with any type of mobile devices. Your site will be adaptive when viewed on a smartphone or tablet. Fully Responsive, Customizable and Search Engine ( SEO ) Friendly Friendly WordPress Theme using Twitter Bootstrap 3, Microformats and Font Awesome icons. You can add Contact Form and Google Maps to contact page. You can also build custom front page to use 3 different block styles, post banner and slider as unlimited. The theme offers Widgetized Sidebar, four column Footer Widgets. You can add unlimted Widgets in each Sidebar and Footer Column. Theme Features: Advanced Custom Fields, Contact Form, Custom Front Page Settings, Custom Background Support, Custom Menu ( 3 Level on Header, 1 Level on footer ), Custom Colors, Google Fonts, Dynamic Widgets, Slider ( Responsive and Mobile Touch Friendly ), Featured Post Banner, Different Blog Page and Homepage Style, Redux Framework, Post Formats, Microformats, Responsive Video, Popular Posts Widgets.
Cream Magazine is a news & magazine WordPress theme with a clean & modern design suitable for everyone who wish to share their stories, publish a breaking daily news or write on different topics. Everything in Cream Magazine is very easy to deal with, after assigning a front-page one can fully get started to build a website though WordPress Live Customizer.Cream magazine is build taking SEO, Speed & Responsive in mind. Build-in features like lazy load for images has been implemented to make cream mag load faster & extra library files have been bundled to minimize HTTP requests.
NewsCard is a Multi-Purpose Magazine/News WordPress Theme. NewsCard is specially designed for magazine sites (food, travel, fashion, music, health, sports, photography), news sites, shopping sites, personal/photo blog and many more. There are Front Page Template, Sidebar Page Layout, Top Bar, Header Image/Overlay/Advertisement, Social Profiles and Banner Slider. Also supports popular plugins like WooCommerce, bbPress, Contact Form 7 and many more. It is also translation ready.
Newsphere is a perfect news and magazine responsive WordPress theme that lets you write articles and blog posts with ease. Create a great news website the help of live customizer options and custom widgets, you can design your website as you like and preview the changes live. It is compatible with the Gutenberg and RTL along with WooCommerce plugin which helps you to integrate an online business with our newspaper template. As it includes many useful features that require to build an awesome looking newsportal, the theme is perfect for blogging and excellent for a news, newspaper, magazine, publishing or review site. The theme is well optimized that helps to rank your website in the top of search engines and users will get an outstanding support from the team if there will be any difficulties while using the theme. There are number of demos available in this theme so choose the one you like and start to build a website.
Publication is an elegant blog and magazine theme that features full-screen Featured Images. It’s perfect for sites about fashion, food, travel, or design. With balanced typography, colors, and attention to detail, Publication helps you create visually stunning posts. Pick your favorite colors to lend your personal flair.
Default Mag is a clean, responsive and multi-layout WordPress Magazine or blog theme with a creative and clean look it is perfect for all newspaper, magazines and blog websites. It comes up with a simple yet elegant look and helps you present your content in an attractive and user-friendly way. With its several customization options and custom, widgets help to makes your site setup easy and looks perfect along with its cross-browser compatibility will make your site attractive and eye-catching in any browser and different variations of devices screen size on each and every device. The theme is SEO friendly with optimized code and outstanding support makes your site awesome. With One Click Demo Import you can download demo data from our documentation link and import manually.
Grace Mag is a free WordPress theme that is perfect for your news sites and magazine sites. Grace magazine is suitable for creating the magazine, blog, news and personal sites. Grace magazine is responsive to all types of screens. Grace News and magazine theme is highly customizable from WordPress live customizer. This theme is simple, well optimized for SEO and requiring no effort to customize. The responsive layout of the theme gives your website an excellent look at all devices and screen resolutions. It is a Speed & SEO optimized theme which helps your website perform well in search engine ranking. Furthermore, it is cross-browser compatible and looks beautiful on any device and screen sizes.
Magazinews is free WordPress theme that perfectly suites your need in creating the news sites easily. It is suitable for creating the blog, magazine, news and personal sites. This theme supports all of the post format available in WordPress to display the post. This theme is easy to use, speed optimized and highly customizable. The responsive layout of the theme gives your website an elegant look on all device and screen resolutions.
Magazine News Byte
Magazine News Byte comes with numerous options and widgets to help you create a unique content driven website. SEO optimized and works with Yoast SEO plugin, Contect Form 7, Jetpack, Google Maps mappress, Page Builder, Elementor and various other plugins. Translation and multi-lingual ready!
JustWrite is a very unique writer theme with many options for well build magazine sites. This is fully responsive theme if you need to update your website to the next level, with modern and clean look this theme has the best magazine options available. Very classy and modern free magazine theme, best for large mag website looking to update their current look and feel.
The free newspaper WordPress theme is minimal and engaging. It has usage for news sites, magazines, editorials, publishing and review sites, e-learning portals, informative sites and newspaper sites. It can readily serve for personal blogs and professional portfolios. The theme code conforms to the WordPress standards making your site bug-free and ultimately secure. It ensures convenience to users through user-friendly interface and hassle-free navigation. Start using your site as soon as you install it. Since our theme developers have provided full documentation, you will never face any problem in installing and configuring the theme. Customization is allowed but on small scale like changing logo and doing slider setting. With lot of space spared, utilize it to stuff ads or other widgets. This theme is responsive, cross-browser compatible, translation ready and has social media icons integrated.
Power Magazine is clean, well structured, sparkling, user-friendly, flexible, dynamic and attention-grabbing WordPress Magazine Theme with a sleek feel that’s perfect for news sites, editorial websites and online magazines. It comes up with the colorful look, built with the latest design trends and highly adjustable theme customizer that lets you customize the appearance of the theme: menu, logo, background and so on.
Magbook is a WordPress theme exclusively built for news, newspaper, magazine, publishing, Blog or review websites. It is clean, super flexible, fully responsive designs, amazing new features, complete 1-click website demos and lifetime free updates. Magbook design can be used for any type of website.
Magazine News is a modern responsive WordPress theme. The theme has clean and elegant design. The theme is SEO friendly, Cross browser compatible, fully translation ready and is compatible with WooCommerce and all other major plugins. The Magazine News theme is excellent for a news, newspaper, magazine, publishing or other editorial websites. Amazing scroll animations and free Kirki options – Custom CSS, Sidebar Aniamtions, All Google Fonts, Disable All Comments, Mobile call now.
Magpaper is one of the fastest, cleanest, easy to use and aesthetically responsive WordPress magazine theme. To tweak your design further, the built-in Theme Customizer options include a plethora of options that enable you to fine-tune your site to your exact requirements. This theme is primarily designed for magazine formats. Newspaper can be ideal for news-related websites with high traffic. It combines gorgeous elements with intuitive settings and will enable you to build almost any kind of online publication.
An elegant and minimalist theme, which is predominantly designed for a web news portal and magazine with an immense research on contemporary online newspapers. With the help of available customizer options and widgets, you can implement layout as a trending news journals, modern fashion magazine, travel blogging & magazine, clean and minimal news sites, blogging site and even more. The theme is SEO friendly with optimized code and awesome support.
Divi:Visual Drag & Drop
Simple Folio grid based theme perfect for portfolio or modern blog with fully responsive build in slider. Upload any size logo small or large. Simple folio comes with build in pagination, footer and fully responsive slider. No need for any plugin, everything you see its build in for you to start your simple portfolio or blog site. Perfect for any blogger to showcase beautiful images and write creatives stories. This fully responsive slider comes with build in white text box that shows your posts titles and few lines of description, very useful for SEO and user experience.
Studio Magazine Theme
Studio magazine free WordPress theme with magazine layout perfecto for anyone looking for the mag layout with grid based responsive and infinite scroll solution. The slider is build in so you don’t have to download any plugins and then grid is perfectly coded for responsive and mobile friendly use. Beautiful google typography and SEO optimized for friendly search. Simple and modern clean with a lot of white space theme, the focus is on your photos and content and not overwhelming to the visitors. Download it and use it for any project either small or large, enjoy the simple but beautiful layout.
Islemag beautiful and fully responsive magazine WordPress theme, with box sliding slider, advertisement banners and sidebar widest. IsleMag is stylish and clean free magazine theme with square box posts, if you looking for this beautiful and modern look this is perfect theme for you.
Journal simple and beautiful responsive free magazine and Journal WordPress theme with many options to customize and easy to navigate. Journal has many featured section for you to add your categories, pick which posts are trending and which stay up top as the most important ones. Very well design modern looking magazine theme.
Magnetism is modern and sophisticated yet simple magazine WordPress theme, for clean and modern look to impress your visitors. This amazing theme is easy to setup and install with fully responsive build in motion slider so its easier to your visitors to pick the best articles to read. This is one column design with right side custom widgets option.
Gadgetry very nice and clever designed magazine theme with build in fully responsive slider, dark navigation for a beautiful sharp look. Gadget is a 2 column modern magazine theme with right sidebar widget for all your widgets needs, such as most popular posts, advertisement, about section, etc..
PT Magazine is modern and perfectly crafted responsive theme suitable for dynamic news, newspapers, magazine, publishers, blogs, editors, online magazines, newsportals and any creative sites. This SEO friendly free magazine theme is fast, secure and perfectly suitable for topics like business, fashion, technology, politics, sports, health, travel or anything else.
Kale is super minimalist modern magazine WordPress theme with large build in slider with a titles over it. Kale is fully responsive and modern mag theme with featured posts 2 or 1 column posts and right sidebar option for your about us, newsletter signup and search box options.
NewsMag Lite is very modern and classy fully responsive magazine theme with large build in slider. It has advertisement banners up top for your google ads. This is 3 column grid based like layout with many customization options build in, select which category you want to show up top and which down the bottom.
Accesspress mag is fantastic and well build magazine WordPress theme with many options to customize and optimize to your need. Accesspress Mag has many unique features with makes this magazine theme so special, beautiful and well layout parts of the theme are in grid based sections, with custom right side widgets for your social and advertisement needs.
Kustrix beautiful and modern magazine theme with large build in slider and overlay of featured post text with call out buttons. This is one column design with right side sidebar widget option for your tags, search, archive and advertisement options. Perfect minimal magazine wordpress theme for any blogger.
Magazine Newspaper build for newspaper, media, magazine related project. This theme is a minimalist and fully responsive multipurpose theme with full WordPress Customizer integration, that enables you to customize your website with live preview. This theme is very lightweight and easy to use. This is one of the best WordPress theme designed for newspaper, news portal, news website, magazine, lifestyle, blog, bloggers, photographers, personal portfolio, travel bloggers, small medium and large scale businesses, corporates, lawyers, restaurants, weddings, colleges, universities, hotels, churches, salons, fitness, resorts, ecommerce, businesses, creative freelancers, professionals etc. and also supports woocommerce. We provide you free wordpress theme that is SEO friendly and customizable according to your necessity and desire, which helps you make a positive impression on potential clients by showcasing your visual works in the best possible way
Orsey simple and clean theme with motion slider build in for extra sophistication look. This is one clean and white mag theme with many options to customize and SEO optimized perfect for any simple blogger or magazine site, with one column posts and right side beautiful design widgets.
Rara Magazine is a child theme of Metro magazine, modern responsive magazine WordPress theme. The theme is suitable for variety of news, newspaper, magazine, sports, technology, food, travel, blogs, publishing, business and any kind of sites. The theme is built on Customizer and it allows easy customization. Rara Magazine includes color scheme and color for categories, which you can use to change the look and feel of your website with a click. The theme is Speed and Search Engine Optimized (SEO) to help you easily climb the google rank. Other feature includes social media integration, custom widgets, author bio, breadcrumb, advertisement settings, custom CSS, translation ready and more.
Lightly is super simple magazine wordpress theme perfect for any blogger to just write its divided into tow main columns your left column is for your posts and right one for your build in custom widgets. Super light theme perfect for any size magazine or blog website perfect for SEO optimization and great for any reader to simply navigate thru posts.
Oxygen super modern and minimal magazine wordpress theme clean and beautiful design. Oxygen comes with amazing build in slider and left side black navigation, clean lines and modern look makes this theme very unique and easy on eye. Its has build in ads space for your advertisement needs. Great theme for any magazine site looking for simple solution.
Street Style is a prefect magazine digital theme for fashion lovers,clean and modern look gives this theme unique but sophisticated layout. Street style is a clean looking modern magazine theme for any blogger or magazine website. Large vertical images up top are great to show your models or photo shoots, if you are fashion blogger or looking to open and fashion magazine site this is perfect theme for you.
Frequently Asked Questions FAQ?
What are the best free Magazine themes?
The best free magazine and newspaper themes are: Madd Magazine, Colormag, Newspaper Mag, MH Magazine, Great Mag, Newspaper X, Blog Magazine, Hueman, Dynamic News Lite
What is the best free Magazine WordPress theme?
Madd Magazine. Madd Magazine beautiful and creative free magazine WordPress theme for bloggers, writers and journalists.
What is Magazine theme?
Magazine theme is a theme with focus on news and lifestyle where you collect stories and share with the world. Usually a magazine or newspaper theme will have few authors and writers.
How do I use and Install a Magazine WordPress Theme?
In WordPress dashboard go to Appearance –Themes – Add New option in the Appearance sub-menu. Look for your .zip theme file and click Install and Activate